Article 5 of the UTC is primarily modeled on the precepts of the Restatement (Third) of the Law of Trusts and does not recognize the distinctions recognized by Maryland common law limiting the rights of creditors to reach discretionary trusts, support trusts, and spendthrift trusts. In particular, First National Bank v. Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, 284 Md. 720, 399 A.2d 891 (1979), provides guidance on the creation and administration of discretionary and support trusts.
Under Maryland common law, it is well-settled that limited powers of appointment are not property and therefore are not subject to remedies for the benefit of the limited powerholder’s creditors. See, United State v. Baldwin, 283 Md. 586, 391 A.2d 844 (1978) and Mercantile Trust Co. v. Bergdorf & Goodman Co., 167 Md. 158, 173 A.2d 21 (1934). In order to explain and support the provisions of Subtitle 5 of the MTA, a number of definitions are included in MD §14.5-103 which are omitted from the UTC. Those definitions are “discretionary distribution provision,” “support provision,” “mandatory distribution provision,” “power of appointment,” “general power of appointment,” “power of withdrawal,” and “spendthrift provision.”
MD §14.5-510(a) clarifies that a non-settlor beneficiary’s fiduciary powers as a trustee will not add to his/her rights as a beneficiary in determining whether the beneficiary’s interest or trust property is subject to claims by the beneficiary-trustee’s creditors. MD §14.5-510(b) makes is clear that the power of a beneficiary or other person to remove or replace a trustee will not by itself make trust property subject to the claims of that person’s creditors and thereby make such property taxable to the power holder for estate or gift tax purposes.
§ 14.5-510. Attaching, exercising, reaching, or otherwise compelling distribution of beneficial interest prohibited; exceptions.A
(a) A creditor may not attach, exercise, reach, or otherwise compel distribution of the beneficial interest of a beneficiary that is a trustee or the sole trustee of the trust, but that is not a settlor of the trust, except to the extent that the interest would be subject to the claim of the creditor were the beneficiary not acting as cotrustee or sole trustee of the trust.
(b) A creditor may not attach, exercise, reach, or otherwise compel distribution of the beneficial interest of a beneficiary or any other person that holds an unconditional or conditional power to remove a trustee, to replace a trustee, or to remove and replace a trustee, except to the extent that the interest would be subject to the claim of the creditor if the beneficiary or other person did not have the power to remove, replace, or remove and replace a trustee.